Earth system models (ESMs) incorporate information on physical, chemical and biological processes of atmosphere, ocean, land, ice, and biosphere and how they interact. ESMs are able to simulate complex feedback cycles and interactions between different components of the climate system.
|CESM – Community Earth System Model||NCAR (USA)||CESM|
|IFS – Integrated Forecasting System||ECMWF (Europe)||IFS|
|UM – Unified Model||Met Office (UK)||UM|
|WRF – Weather Research & Forecasting Model||NCAR (USA)||WRF|