European Environment Agency – Environmental Indicators

  • Exceedance of air quality standards in urban areas
    true
    Air quality in Europe has improved over the last decades as a direct result of targeted policies and technological improvements. However, between 2015 and 2017, a significant proportion of the urban population in the EU-28 was still exposed to concentrations of certain air pollutants that were above EU limit or target… Read more »
  • Global and European temperature
    true
    According to different observational records of global average annual near-surface (land and ocean) temperature, the last decade (2009–2018) was 0.91 °C to 0.96 °C warmer than the pre-industrial average, which makes it the warmest decade on record. Of the 18 warmest years on record, 17 have occurred since 2000. The year… Read more »
  • Heating and cooling degree days
    true
    The annual population-weighted heating degree days (HDD) decreased by 6 % between the periods 1950–1980 and 1981–2017; the decrease during the period 1981–2017 was on average 6.5 HDDs per year. The largest decrease occurred in northern Europe and possibly in Italy. The annual population-weighted cooling degree days (CDD) increased by 33… Read more »
  • Chlorophyll in transitional, coastal and marine waters
    true
    The trends in chlorophyll concentrations show improvements in the eutrophication status in some of Europe’s seas, due to the successful implementation of nutrient management strategies. The highest chlorophyll concentrations are generally observed in transitional and coastal waters of the marine (sub)regions, in response to elevated nutrient concentrations in those waters.… Read more »
  • Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters
    true
    Examples of successful implementation of nutrient management strategies can be found in, for example, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea regions, where decreasing trends are observed. The highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are generally observed in transitional and coastal waters of the marine (sub)regions, which reflects the influence of… Read more »
  • Economic losses from climate-related extremes in Europe
    true
    In the EEA member countries (EEA-33), the total reported economic losses caused by weather and climate-related extremes over the period 1980-2017 amounted to approximately EUR 453 billion (in 2017 Euro values).  Average annual economic losses in the EEA member countries varied between EUR 7.4 billion over the period 1980-1989, EUR 13.4 billion (1990-1999) and… Read more »
  • Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations
    true
    The annual average concentration of CO 2 , the most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, increased to 403 and 405 parts per million (ppm) in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The total concentration of all greenhouse gases, including cooling aerosols, reached a value of 449 ppm in CO 2 equivalents in 2016 —… Read more »
  • Progress on energy efficiency in Europe
    true
    Over the period 1990-2016, the energy efficiency of end-use sectors improved by 30 % in the EU-28 countries at an annual average rate of 1.4 %/year. These improvements were driven by improvements in the industry sector (1.8 %/year) and the households sector (1.6 %/year). However, half of the efficiency gains… Read more »
  • Status of marine fish and shellfish stocks in European seas
    true
    As a main source of protein, fish stocks and other sea products are renewable resources, which could sustain human needs in the long term — if exploited in an appropriate manner. The overall use of fish and shellfish stocks in Europe currently remains beyond the limit for long-term environmental sustainability.… Read more »
  • Intensity of final energy consumption
    true
    The EU's final energy intensity decreased by 17.5 % between 2005 and 2016, at a rate of 1.7 % per year. Final energy consumption decreased at a rate of 0.7 % a year while gross domestic product grew by 1.1 % annually over the same period. This indicates a decoupling… Read more »